Re-considering managerial use of child labor: lessons from the experience of nineteenth century Australia
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Purpose - Much research has focused on the reasons for child labor. This paper, in examining the experiences of late nineteenth century Australia asks the alternate research question: "What are the factors that cause mangers to desist from the use of child labor during periods of initial industrialization, even where the society is characterized by a youthful demography and low levels of manufacturing productivity?" Design/ Methodology/ approach - This study measures the incidence of child labor in Queensland, Australia's third largest state, through an examination of the censes for 1891 and 1901. It then locates the results of this analysis in the nineteenth century Australian peculiar pattern of economic investment. Findings - It is found that industrializing Australia had an extremely low incidence of child labor. This is attributed to the highly capitalized nature of the Australian rural and mining sectors, and the linkages between these sectors and the wider economy. This suggests that counties, or regions, with a highly commercialized primary sector, and with manufacturing establishments with high skill requirements (even if characterized by low productivity), will have a low incidence of child labor. Originality / value - The International Labor Organisation suggests that there is currently a revival in child labor. This paper suggests that the most effective policies for reducing the incidence of child labor are ones that seek to foster increased levels of capital investment in the primary sector, rather than ones directed towards legal restriction or poverty alleviation. Key Words: child labor, productivity, demography, manufacturing, mining, pastoral work
Journal of Management History
Copyright 2010 Emerald. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.