Antibodies to group A streptococcal virulence factors, SIC and DRS, increase predilection to GAS pyoderma
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Background: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) is an etiological agent for pharyngitis, pyoderma, and invasive infections in humans. Pharyngitis and pyoderma may lead to serious immune sequelae such as rheumatic heart disease and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Streptococcal Inhibitor of Complement (SIC) and its orthologue, distantly related to SIC (DRS), are virulence factors expressed by only four of more than 100 M types of GAS. These four types (M1, M57, M12 and M55) are among the M types, which are associated with PSGN. In several populations PSGN has been shown to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Previous studies showed SIC or DRS antibody-prevalence was associated with PSGN, and seroprevalence of SIC antibodies is significantly high among CKD and ESRD patients in Mumbai. Methods: Streptococcal isolates recovered from GAS pyoderma cases were typed. Seropositivity for SIC and DRS antibodies in subjects with pyoderma, PSGN pediatric cases, age matched healthy controls and non-GAS pyoderma cases were determined. Results: We confirm in this study an association between seroprevalence to SIC and DRS antibodies, and PSGN in Mumbai population despite low point prevalence of M1, M12, M55 and M57. In addition we extended the study to GAS-pyoderma and non-GAS pyoderma cases. To our surprise, we found a positive association between the seroprevalence to SIC and DRS antibodies, and GAS-pyoderma owing to infection with diverse M types. The mechanism of increased predisposition to pyoderma owing to infection by diverse GAS among SIC or DRS antibody-positive population is not clear. Nonetheless, our findings could be explained by a phenomenon akin to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Conclusions: This is the first report showing a small number of GAS M types conferring predisposition to pyoderma by diverse types. Implications of this ADE-like phenomenon are discussed in the light of evolutionary advantage to GAS, vaccine design and control of renal diseases.
BMC Infectious Diseases
Copyright Karmarkar et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
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Microbiology not elsewhere classified