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dc.contributor.authorMelvin, Steven D
dc.contributor.authorHabener, Leesa J
dc.contributor.authorLeusch, Frederic DL
dc.contributor.authorCarroll, Anthony R
dc.description.abstractPharmaceuticals are widely used for the treatment of various physical and psychological ailments. Due to incomplete removal during sewage treatment many pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in aquatic waterways at trace concentrations. The diversity of pharmaceutical contaminants and potential for complex mixtures to occur makes it very difficult to predict the toxicity of these compounds on wildlife, and robust methods are therefore needed to explore sub-lethal effects. Metabolic syndrome is one of the most widespread health concerns currently facing the human population, and various drugs, including anti-diabetic medications and lipid- and cholesterol-lowering fibrates and statins, are widely prescribed as treatment. In this study, we exposed striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles to a mixture of the drugs metformin, atorvastatin and bezafibrate at 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L to explore possible effects on growth and development, energy reserves (triglycerides and cholesterol), and profiles of small polar metabolites extracted from hepatic tissues. It was hypothesised that exposure would result in a general reduction in energy reserves, and that this would subsequently correspond with reduced growth and development. Responses differed from expected outcomes based on the known mechanisms of these compounds in humans, with no changes to hepatic triglycerides or cholesterol and a general increase in mass and condition with increasing exposure concentration. Deviation from the expected response patterns may be explained by differences in the receptivity or uptake of the compounds in non-mammalian species. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy revealed evidence of broad metabolic dysregulation in exposed animals, and possible interaction between the solvent and mixture. Specifically, increased lactic acid and branched-chain amino acids were observed, with responses tending to follow a non-monotonic pattern. Overall, results demonstrate that a mixture of drugs commonly prescribed to treat human metabolic syndrome is capable of eliciting physiological and developmental effects on larval amphibians. Importantly, outcomes further suggest that it may not be possible to predict toxicological effects in non-target wildlife based on our knowledge of how these compounds act in humans.
dc.description.sponsorshipGriffith University
dc.relation.ispartofjournalAquatic Toxicology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Science and Management not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiological Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical Sciences
dc.title1H NMR-based metabolomics reveals sub-lethal toxicity of a mixture of diabetic and lipid-regulating pharmaceuticals on amphibian larvae
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.facultyGriffith Sciences, Griffith School of Environment
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorCarroll, Anthony R.
gro.griffith.authorLeusch, Frederic
gro.griffith.authorHabener, Leesa
gro.griffith.authorMelvin, Steve D.

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