Efficacy and safety of normal saline instillation and paediatric endotracheal suction: An integrative review
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Objective: To synthesise research findings regarding the efficacy and safety of normal saline instillation (NSI) during endotracheal suction in the paediatric intensive care unit. Data sources: The Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched. Subject headings included “suctioning, endotracheal”, “suction”, “sodium chloride”, “normal saline” and “paediatrics”.Additional references were sourced fromhand searches ofjournal article reference lists and Google Scholar. Method: An integrative, systematic approach was used to qualitatively synthesise study results in the context of paediatric intensive care nursing practice. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction form. Quality assessment was performed independently by two reviewers. Results: Three studies met pre-defined inclusion criteria. Quality of all study methods was 75% on the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool, although reporting quality varied. Overall, there was a scarcity of high quality evidence examining NSI and paediatric endotracheal suction. Outcome measures included oxygen saturation (SpO2), serious adverse events (author/s defined) and ventilation parameters (author/s defined). Endotracheal suction with NSI was associated with a transient decrease in blood oxygen saturation; research protocols did not include interventions to mitigate alveolar derecruitment. Studies were not powered to detect differences in endotracheal tube (ETT) occlusion or ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Conclusion: NSI was associated with a transient decrease in oxygen saturation. In children with obstructive mucous, NSI may have a positive effect. Practices which maximise secretion removal and mitigate the negative physiological interactions of ETS have been poorly evaluated in the paediatric population. High quality, powered, clinical trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of normal saline instillation and to inform clinical practice.
Australian Critical Care
This publication has been entered into Griffith Research Online as an Advanced Online Version.
Nursing not elsewhere classified