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dc.contributor.authorWood, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorDuval, Mathieu
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, Thi Mai Huong
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, Anh Tuan
dc.contributor.authorBacon, Anne-Marie
dc.contributor.authorDemeter, Fabrice
dc.contributor.authorDuringer, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorOxenham, Marc
dc.contributor.authorPiper, Philip
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-24T03:51:07Z
dc.date.available2017-11-24T03:51:07Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.issn1871-1014
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.quageo.2016.08.010
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/340138
dc.description.abstractIt is rarely possible to directly radiocarbon date skeletal remains from hot environments as collagen rapidly degrades. Although able to survive in the majority of burial environments for longer, unburnt biological apatites frequently produce inaccurate radiocarbon dates due to contamination from carbonate in the groundwater. The location of this contamination within the skeletal material is rarely investigated, hampering development of improved radiocarbon pretreatment methods. This paper focuses on tooth enamel and aims to test whether carbonate contaminants are sitting at the crystallite boundaries, and from this to test a pretreatment to produce more accurate radiocarbon age estimates. Although the porosity of enamel is low, trace elements are thought to diffuse between enamel prisms and crystallites. Gordon et al. (2015, Science, 347 (6223), 746-750) identified magnesium substituted amorphous calcium phosphate between the apatite crystallites. This phase contains the majority of magnesium within modern rodent enamel, providing an opportunity to monitor its removal, and thus test whether carbonate contaminants are located between or on the surface of the crystallites. Modern Sus scrofa and four ancient Sus scrofa teeth have been used to demonstrate that the more finely ground the enamel, the more magnesium can be removed with an acetic acid leach, and the more accurate the radiocarbon dates. After leaching in acetic acid, teeth dating to beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method (c.50 ka) produce ages of c.20 kBP when hand ground, and c.30 kBP when mechanically ground. This suggests that some contaminants are sitting at the crystallite boundaries. However, although mechanically grinding substantially increases the amount of carbonate contamination removed in an acid leach compared to hand grinding, not all contaminants could be removed from the samples examined in this study, and radiocarbon dates on tooth apatite should still be regarded as minimum ages.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier Science
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom174
dc.relation.ispartofpageto187
dc.relation.ispartofjournalQuaternary Geochronology
dc.relation.ispartofvolume36
dc.subject.fieldofresearchGeochronology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchGeochemistry
dc.subject.fieldofresearchGeology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical Geography and Environmental Geoscience
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode040303
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0402
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0403
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0406
dc.titleThe effect of grain size on carbonate contaminant removal from tooth enamel: Towards an improved pretreatment for radiocarbon dating
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscript (AM)
gro.rights.copyright© 2016 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorDuval, Mathieu


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