Floating Monopole Antenna on a Tethered Subsurface Sensor at 433 MHz for Ocean Monitoring Applications
Low-cost tethered buoys are important for seawater observation, coastal area monitoring, and pollution sensing. Underwater sensor networks operating at 433 MHz (ISM band) suffer high attenuation due to seawater conductivity. Significant propagation distance cannot be achieved through seawater or along the seabed. This paper reports a novel technique for communication between sensors operating in shallow water. A sensor tethered to the bottom was connected to a floating monopole antenna via an insulated wire transmission line. Experiments and calculations show that the attenuation along the transmission line was 38 dB/m. Surface propagation for buoy-to-base station was approximately 1 dB/m with a communication range of 30 m using a 10-dBm transmitter circuit with receiver sensitivity of −110 dBm. For buoy to buoy the surface propagation was measured as 3.5 dB/m with a communication range of 4 m. Experiments were carried out in calm water conditions. The results demonstrate that significant sensor network coverage of coastal regions is possible.
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Maritime Engineering not elsewhere classified
Mechanical Engineering not elsewhere classified