Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS): Instrument refinement using confirmatory factor analysis
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Background and purpose A recent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) by Lane, Harwood, Terry, and Karageorghis [2004. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 803-812] provided only mixed support for structural integrity of the TOPS. The objectives of the present paper were to further examine the instrument's structural integrity and enhance it if necessary. Method and results In a pilot study, a sample of North American athletes completed the TOPS. Results revealed poor fits during analysis of the competition and practice subscales. In Study 1, a number of new items were developed and a new competition subscale (distractibility) introduced, to address the problems identified and create the TOPS 2. CFAs of responses from a sample of Australian, North American and British athletes provided much stronger support for the factorial validity of the TOPS 2 inventory. However, the distractibility subscale suffered from poor factor loadings and reliability, and so was removed from further analysis. In Study 2, the factorial validity of the TOPS 2 was confirmed on a new sample of Australian athletes. Conclusions The TOPS 2 appears to be an improvement over the TOPS. Implications of the results for practitioners are discussed, and future research directions are recommended.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise