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dc.contributor.authorHardy, Lew
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Ross
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Patrick R
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, Shane M
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-03T11:55:40Z
dc.date.available2017-05-03T11:55:40Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.date.modified2010-09-17T07:07:02Z
dc.identifier.issn1469-0292
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.04.007
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/34093
dc.description.abstractBackground and purpose A recent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) by Lane, Harwood, Terry, and Karageorghis [2004. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 803-812] provided only mixed support for structural integrity of the TOPS. The objectives of the present paper were to further examine the instrument's structural integrity and enhance it if necessary. Method and results In a pilot study, a sample of North American athletes completed the TOPS. Results revealed poor fits during analysis of the competition and practice subscales. In Study 1, a number of new items were developed and a new competition subscale (distractibility) introduced, to address the problems identified and create the TOPS 2. CFAs of responses from a sample of Australian, North American and British athletes provided much stronger support for the factorial validity of the TOPS 2 inventory. However, the distractibility subscale suffered from poor factor loadings and reliability, and so was removed from further analysis. In Study 2, the factorial validity of the TOPS 2 was confirmed on a new sample of Australian athletes. Conclusions The TOPS 2 appears to be an improvement over the TOPS. Implications of the results for practitioners are discussed, and future research directions are recommended.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.publicationstatusYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationN
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom27
dc.relation.ispartofpageto35
dc.relation.ispartofissue1
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
dc.relation.ispartofvolume11
dc.rights.retentionY
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiomedical and clinical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEducation
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPsychology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode32
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode39
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode52
dc.titleTest of Performance Strategies (TOPS): Instrument refinement using confirmatory factor analysis
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.date.issued2010
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorThomas, Pat R.


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