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dc.contributor.authorGreen, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorYu, Dapeng
dc.contributor.authorPattison, Ian
dc.contributor.authorWilby, Robert
dc.contributor.authorBosher, Lee
dc.contributor.authorPatel, Ramila
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Philip
dc.contributor.authorTrowell, Keith
dc.contributor.authorDraycon, Julia
dc.contributor.authorHalse, Martin
dc.contributor.authorYang, Lili
dc.contributor.authorRyley, Tim
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-25T12:31:08Z
dc.date.available2017-07-25T12:31:08Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.issn1561-8633
dc.identifier.doi10.5194/nhess-17-1-2017
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/342199
dc.description.abstractEmergency responders often have to operate and respond to emergency situations during dynamic weather conditions, including floods. This paper demonstrates a novel method using existing tools and datasets to evaluate emergency responder accessibility during flood events within the city of Leicester, UK. Accessibility was quantified using the 8 and 10 min legislative targets for emergency provision for the ambulance and fire and rescue services respectively under "normal" no-flood conditions, as well as flood scenarios of various magnitudes (1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year recurrence intervals), with both surface water and fluvial flood conditions considered. Flood restrictions were processed based on previous hydrodynamic inundation modelling undertaken and inputted into a Network Analysis framework as restrictions for surface water and fluvial flood events. Surface water flooding was shown to cause more disruption to emergency responders operating within the city due to its widespread and spatially distributed footprint when compared to fluvial flood events of comparable magnitude. Fire and rescue 10 min accessibility was shown to decrease from 100, 66.5, 39.8 and 26.2 % under the no-flood, 1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year surface water flood scenarios respectively. Furthermore, total inaccessibility was shown to increase with flood magnitude from 6.0 % under the 1 in 20-year scenario to 31.0 % under the 1 in 100-year flood scenario. Additionally, the evolution of emergency service accessibility throughout a surface water flood event is outlined, demonstrating the rapid impact on emergency service accessibility within the first 15 min of the surface water flood event, with a reduction in service coverage and overlap being observed for the ambulance service during a 1 in 100-year flood event. The study provides evidence to guide strategic planning for decision makers prior to and during emergency response to flood events at the city scale. It also provides a readily transferable method for exploring the impacts of natural hazards or disruptions in other cities or regions based on historic, scenario-based events or real-time forecasting, if such data are available.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherCopernicus GmbH
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto16
dc.relation.ispartofjournalNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
dc.relation.ispartofvolume17
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical Geography and Environmental Geoscience not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchGeology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical Geography and Environmental Geoscience
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMaritime Engineering
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode040699
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0403
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0406
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0911
dc.titleCity-scale accessibility of emergency responders operating during flood events
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorRyley, Tim


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