Effects of fungicide iprodione and nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate on soil enzyme and bacterial properties
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Agrochemical applications may have unintended detrimental effects on soil microorganisms and soil health. However, limited studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated fungicide applications and interactive effects of different agrochemical applications on soil microorganisms. In this study, an incubation experiment was established to evaluate the potential influences of the fungicide iprodione and the nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil enzyme activities and bacterial properties. Weekly iprodione applications decreased the activities of all enzymes tested, and DMPP application inhibited soil urease activity. Compared with the blank control, bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased following repeated iprodione applications, but increased after DMPP application. After 28 days of incubation, the treatment receiving both iprodione and DMPP application had higher bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance and Shannon diversity index than the treatment with iprodione applications alone. Repeated iprodione applications significantly increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased the relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria. Simultaneously, bacterial community structure was changed by repeated iprodione applications, alone or together with DMPP. These results showed that repeated iprodione applications exerted negative effects on soil enzyme activities, bacterial biomass and community diversity. Moreover, relative to iprodione applications alone, additional DMPP application could alleviate the toxic effects of iprodione applications on bacterial biomass and community diversity.
Science of the Total Environment
Soil Sciences not elsewhere classified