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dc.contributor.authorLi, Xin
dc.contributor.authorGorle, Anil K
dc.contributor.authorAinsworth, Tracy D
dc.contributor.authorHeimann, Kirsten
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, Clifford E
dc.contributor.authorCollins, J Grant
dc.contributor.authorKeene, F Richard
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-10T02:20:05Z
dc.date.available2017-08-10T02:20:05Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.issn1477-9226
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/c4dt02575j
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/343711
dc.description.abstractConfocal microscopy was used to study the intracellular localisation of a series of inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with three eukaryotic cells lines – baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (Hep-G2). Co-staining experiments with the DNA-selective dye DAPI demonstrated that the di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridyl)]-1,12-dodecane bridging ligand (“bb12”) showed a high degree of selectivity for the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells. Additional co-localisation experiments with the general nucleic acid stain SYTO 9 indicated that the ruthenium complexes showed a considerable preference for the RNA-rich nucleolus, rather than chromosomal DNA. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular localisation between the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex. Cytotoxicity assays carried out over 72 hours indicated that the ruthenium complexes, particularly the tri- and tetra-nuclear species, were significantly toxic to the eukaryotic cells. However, when the activity of the least cytotoxic compound (the ΔΔ enantiomer of the dinuclear species) was determined over a 24 hour period, the results indicated that the ruthenium complex was approximately a 100-fold less toxic to liver and kidney cells than to Gram positive bacteria. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex on the solution conformations of RNA and DNA. The CD experiments indicated that the RNA maintained the A-type conformation, and the DNA the B-type structure, upon binding by the ruthenium complexes.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom3594
dc.relation.ispartofpageto3603
dc.relation.ispartofissue8
dc.relation.ispartofjournalDalton Transactions
dc.relation.ispartofvolume44
dc.subject.fieldofresearchInorganic Chemistry not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchInorganic Chemistry
dc.subject.fieldofresearchTheoretical and Computational Chemistry
dc.subject.fieldofresearchOther Chemical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode030299
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0302
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0307
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0399
dc.titleRNA and DNA binding of inert oligonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes in live eukaryotic cells
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2015. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorGorle, Anil Kumar


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