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dc.contributor.authorAsghar, K
dc.contributor.authorFarooq, A
dc.contributor.authorZulfiqar, B
dc.contributor.authorRashid, MU
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-14T04:09:26Z
dc.date.available2017-08-14T04:09:26Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.issn1007-9327
dc.identifier.doi10.3748/wjg.v23.i13.2286
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/343976
dc.description.abstractTumor cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment which leads towards tumor immune escape. Understanding the intricacy of immunomodulation by tumor cells is essential for immunotherapy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme which mediates tumor immune escape in various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). IDO up-regulation in HCC may lead to recruitment of regulatory T-cells into tumor microenvironment and therefore inhibit local immune responses and promote metastasis. HCC associated fibroblasts stimulate natural killer cells dysfunction through prostaglandin E2 and subsequently IDO promotes favorable condition for tumor metastasis. IDO up-regulation induces immunosuppression and may enhance the risk of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus induced HCC. Therefore, IDO inhibitors as adjuvant therapeutic agents may have clinical implications in HCC. This review proposes future prospects of IDO not only as a therapeutic target but also as a prognostic marker for HCC.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherBaishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom2286
dc.relation.ispartofpageto2293
dc.relation.ispartofissue13
dc.relation.ispartofjournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
dc.relation.ispartofvolume23
dc.subject.fieldofresearchOncology and Carcinogenesis not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchClinical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode111299
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1103
dc.titleIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: As a potential prognostic marker and immunotherapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.description.versionPublished
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorZulfiqar, Bilal


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