A conceptual framework for patient-reported outcomes in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
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Purpose: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a chronic condition requiring repeated treatment and endoscopic examinations that can be life-long. In this context, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is important to patients and managing clinicians, and integral to treatment recommendations for NMIBC. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework of patient-reported NMIBC symptoms, treatment side effects, and HRQOL impacts from three sources: (1) literature, (2) patients and (3) treating clinicians. Methods: First, we undertook a scoping literature review for studies reporting patient-reported outcomes associated with NMIBC. Outcomes were extracted and grouped conceptually. Then, we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with NMIBC and treating clinicians. Patients were asked about symptoms and HRQOL impacts experienced from their NMIBC and treatments. Clinicians were asked about commonly reported outcomes, and outcomes they felt were important to assess clinically. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and content analysed. Results: A total of 125 symptom- and functioning-related expressions from 18 studies, 26 patients and 20 clinicians were coded into three themes and 18 sub-themes. Patients commonly reported blood in urine and frequent urination. Clinicians considered BCG sepsis and flu-like symptoms important outcomes to assess during treatment for NMIBC. Conclusion: Our empirically derived conceptual framework identifies patient-reported outcomes that are important to people with NMIBC, provides the basis for the development of a new NMIBC-specific symptom index, and guides the design of a comprehensive PRO assessment plan for clinical practice in NMIBC and future clinical trials of treatments for NMIBC.
Supportive Care in Cancer
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Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified