Desulfotomaculum varum sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a microbial mat colonizing a Great Artesian Basin bore well runoff channel
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A strictly anaerobic moderately thermophilic bacterium, designated strain RH04-3T (T = type strain), was isolated from a red colored microbial mat that colonizes a Great Artesian Basin (GAB) bore well (Registered Number 17263) runoff channel at 66 °C. The cells of strain RH04-3T were straight to slightly curved, sporulating, Gram-positive rods (2.0–5.0 × 1.0 μm) that grew optimally at 50 °C (temperature growth range between 37 and 55 °C) and at pH 7 (pH growth range of 5.0 and 8.5). Growth was inhibited by NaCl concentrations ≥1.5% (w/v), and by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ampicillin. The strain utilized fructose, mannose, glycerol, lactate, pyruvate and H2 in the presence of sulfate, and fermented pyruvate in the absence of sulfate. Strain RH04-3T reduced sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur, but not nitrate, nitrite, iron(III), arsenate(V), vanadium(V) or cobalt(III) as terminal electron acceptors. The G + C content of DNA was 52.4 ± 0.8 mol % as determined by the thermal denaturation (Tm) method. 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that strain RH04-3T was a member of the genus Desulfotomaculum and was most closely related to Desulfotomaculum putei (similarity value of 95.2%) and Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale (similarity value of 93.6%). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain RH04-3T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, for which the name Desulfotomaculum varum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain RH04-3T = JCM 16158T = KCTC 5794T.
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Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified