Factors Associated with Suicide: Case-Control Study in South Tyrol
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Background: As suicide is related to many factors in addition to psychiatric illness, broad and comprehensive risk-assessment for risk of suicide is required. This study aimed to differentiate nondiagnostic risk factors among suicides versus comparable psychiatric patients without suicidal behavior. Methods: We carried out a pilot, case-control comparison of 131 cases of suicide in South Tyrol matched for age and sex with 131 psychiatric controls, using psychological autopsy methods to evaluate differences in clinically assessed demographic, social, and clinical factors, using bivariate conditional Odds Risk comparisons followed by conditional regression modeling controlled for ethnicity. Results: Based on multivariable conditional regression modeling, suicides were significantly more likely to have experienced risk factors, ranking as: [a] family history of suicide or attempt ≥ [b] recent interpersonal stressors ≥ [c] childhood traumatic events ≥ [d] lack of recent clinician contacts ≥ [e] previous suicide attempt ≥ [f] non-Italian ethnicity, but did not differ in education, marital status, living situation, or employment, nor by psychiatric or substance-abuse diagnoses. Conclusions: Both recent and early factors were associated with suicide, including lack of recent clinical care, non-Italian cultural subgroup-membership, familial suicidal behavior, and recent interpersonal distress.
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Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified