On the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Stainless Steel
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The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured (AM) structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as selective laser melting (SLM). These methods have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required) of components, geometrical flexibility in their design, and efficiency when only small quantities are required. However, designs demand precise knowledge of the material properties, which in the case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, inhomogeneous in nature. Furthermore, these characteristics are highly dependent on the fabrication settings. In this study, the anisotropic tensile properties of selective laser-melted stainless steel (1.4404, 316L) are investigated: the Young’s modulus ranged from 148 to 227 GPa, the ultimate tensile strength from 512 to 699 MPa, and the breaking elongation ranged, respectively, from 12% to 43%. The results were compared to related studies in order to classify the influence of the fabrication settings. Furthermore, the influence of the chosen raw material was addressed by comparing deviations on the directional dependencies reasoned from differing microstructural developments during manufacture. Stainless steel was found to possess its maximum strength at a 45° layer versus loading offset, which is precisely where AlSi10Mg was previously reported to be at its weakest.
© 2017 The Author(s). Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Manufacturing Processes and Technologies (excl. Textiles)
Metals and Alloy Materials