Mucosal immunity in healthy adults after parenteral vaccination with outer-membrane vesicles from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B
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BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococcus or related species leads to protective immunity in adolescence or early adulthood. This natural immunity is associated with mucosal and systemic T cell memory. Whether parenteral Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) vaccination influences natural mucosal immunity is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether parenteral MenB vaccination affects mucosal immunity in young adults and whether this immunity differs from that induced in the blood. METHODS: Otherwise healthy volunteers were immunized with MenB outer membrane vesicle vaccine before and after routine tonsillectomy. Mucosal and systemic immunity were assessed in 9 vaccinees and 12 unvaccinated control subjects by measuring mononuclear cell proliferation, cytokine production, Th1/Th2 surface marker expression, and antibody to MenB antigens. RESULTS: Parenteral vaccination induced a marked increase in systemic T cell immunity against MenB and a Th1 bias. In contrast, although mucosal T cell proliferation in response to MenB neither increased nor decreased following vaccination, mononuclear cell interferon gamma, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-10 production increased, and the Th1/Th2 profile lost its Th1 bias. CONCLUSIONS: Parenteral MenB vaccination selectively reprograms preexisting naturally acquired mucosal immunity. As new-generation protein-based MenB vaccine candidates undergo evaluation, the impact of these vaccines on mucosal immunity in both adults and children will need to be addressed.
Journal of Infectious Diseases
© 2008 by University of Chicago Press. The attached file is reproduced here in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. First published in Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2008;198:731–740. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Immunology not elsewhere classified