Environmental cost of soil erosion in Sri Lanka: tax/subsidy policy options
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We investigated the suitability of integrating deterministic models to estimate the relative contributions of atmospheric dry and wet deposition onto an urban surface and the subsequent amounts removed by stormwater runoff. The CIT airshed model and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) were linked in order to simulate the fate and transport of nitrogen species through the atmosphere and storm drainage system in Los Angeles, California, USA. Coupling CIT and SWMM involved defining and resolving five critical issues: (1) reconciling the different modeling domain sizes, (2) accounting for dry deposition due to plant uptake, (3) estimating the fraction of deposited contaminant available for washoff, (4) defining wet deposition inputs to SWMM, and (5) parameterizing the SWMM washoff algorithm. The CIT-SWMM interface was demonstrated by simulating dry deposition, wet deposition, and stormwater runoff events to represent the time period from November 18, 1987 to December 4, 1987 for a heavily urbanized Los Angeles watershed discharging to Santa Monica Bay. From November 18th to December 3rd the simulated average dry deposition flux of nitrogen was 0.195 kg N/ha-day to the watershed and 0.016 kg N/ha-day to Santa Monica Bay. The simulated rainfall concentrations during the December 4th rainfall event ranged from 3.76 to 8.23 mg/l for nitrate and from 0.067 to 0.220 mg/l for ammonium. The simulated stormwater runoff event mean concentrations from the watershed were 4.86 mg/l and 0.12 mg/l for nitrate and ammonium, respectively. Considering the meteorology during the simulation period, the CIT and SWMM predictions compare well with observations in the Los Angeles area and in other urban areas in the United States.
Environmental Modelling & Software
Copyright 2001 Elsevier : Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher : This journal is available online - use hypertext links.