High Pressure Synthesis of Conducting Polymers
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An experimental investigation of the high pressure synthesis of water soluble, self doping conducting polymers is presented. 2- And 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid and the respective sodium sulfonates have been polymerised. Optimal polymerisation conditions have been determined with respect to yield, conductivity and molecular weight. Reaction parameters such as oxidant, pressure, catalysts, reaction time and temperature and the use of additives were investigated. The minimum pressure required for polymerisation was 7 kbar. An increase in pressure had a negligible effect on polymer characteristics. The polymers were generated in aqueous, non-acidic media, to ensure they were selfdoping when characterised. Conductivities of between 10-6 Scm-1 and 10-3 Scm-1 were measured. The sulfonate salts reacted faster than the sulfonic acids and for both a longer reaction time resulted in higher yields and conductivities. These polymers were completely water soluble, of high molecular weight and able to be cast as thin films. The arylamines 5- and 8-aminonaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and their respective sodium sulfonates were polymerised at elevated pressure. The naphthalene sulfonate salts polymerised at atmospheric pressure, but displayed a higher molecular weight when reacted under pressure. Generally the naphthalene monomers reacted similarly to the benzene monomers, although there were some differences. Conductivity and yield decreased with increased reaction times and the use of 0.1M equivalents of ferrous sulfate had an negligible effect on the polymers. The polynaphthalenes were highly water soluble, self doping and had conductivities in the order 10-5 to 10-3 Scm-1. A measurement of the activation volume for the polymerisation of 2-methoxyaniline and sodium 8-aminonaphthalene-2-sulfonate was performed. These were determined to be -44 ± 3 cm3mol-1 and -62 ± 10 cm3mol-1 respectively. These large negative values are consistent with rate limiting monomer oxidation.
Thesis (PhD Doctorate)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
School of Science
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self doping conductive polymers