Selective Synthetic Modification of Aminoglycosides for Drug Targeting to Tuberculosis
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The work presented in this thesis details the synthetic modification of the clinically important aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin B, paromomycin and tobramycin. We sought to modify aminoglycosides by attaching lipophilic groups, including fatty acids and steroids, with a view to improving the bacterial membrane permeability of these species, and ultimately their efficacy in the treatment of tuberculosis. Our initial synthetic strategy involved direct and specific functionalization of the singular primary hydroxyl group of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B, with lipophilic groups containing carboxylic acid functions via Mitsunobu esterification. Although, direct and selective Mitsunobu acylation of the primary hydroxyl group proved unsuccessful in the case of the pseudo tetrasaccharide neomycin B, the Mitsunobu reaction did however result in selective chemistry elsewhere in the molecule and this has been exploited for modification of the ido (ring IV) and streptamine (ring II) ring systems. Under carefully controlled conditions, the Mitsunobu reaction has been used for the selective dehydration of the ido ring, to give the talo epoxide, and, under more forcing Mitsunobu dehydration conditions, an aziridine function has been introduced into the streptamine moiety. Both the epoxide and the epoxide-aziridine neomycin building blocks were utilized as synthons in subsequent chemical transformations. Seventeen novel neomycin derivatives featuring modification of ring IV and/or ring II were obtained using this approach. Explicit structural elucidation of all the synthetic intermediates and the final products was achieved using high temperature NMR spectroscopy. Direct and specific functionalization of the singular primary hydroxyl group at the C5 position of the ribose ring (ring III) of neomycin B was achieved, via a procedure based in part on selective tripsylation of the C5III primary hydroxyl group of neomycin B reported previously, followed by subsequent displacement of the tripsyl group by azide. Terminal alkyne containing lipophilic esters were then successfully attached to the ribose residue of neomycin B via Cu(I)-mediated azide-alkyne coupling reaction. In addition to the isolation of two fortuitous, new and versatile synthons i.e. monoanhydro neomycin and bis-anhydro neomycin for modification of ring IV and ring II of neomycin, a third synthon based on neomycin framework, allowing stepwise modification of ring III and ring IV was designed and synthesized. This synthon features an epoxide function in the ido ring, and a protected amine function at the C5 position of the ribose ring. Examples of the stepwise use of this synthon for further synthetic modification of the neomycin framework were demonstrated. Fourteen novel neomycin derivatives featuring modification of ring III and /or ring IV were obtained and characterized. Regioselective Mitsunobu esterification of the single primary hydroxyl group of the pseudo trisaccharide tobramycin was utilized successfully to link a variety of hydrophobic esters with tobramycin. Nine lipophilic tobramycin derivatives with significant structural diversity were synthesised and characterized. In a preliminary study, the applicability of the Mitsunobu dehydration reaction for the regioselective formation of an epoxide ring in the ido moiety of the pseudo tetrasaccharide aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin system was confirmed. The regioselective ring-opening of the derived epoxide with azide at C3IV of paromomycin was also successfully demonstrated. In total, forty-two new potential aminoglycoside antibiotics have been synthesized and characterized.
Thesis (PhD Doctorate)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences
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