Improving Anti-Breast Cancer Vaccines by Overcoming Tumour Induced Immunosuppressive Factors
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Cancers are a rapidly increasing source of morbidity and mortality for Australians. In 2005, there were over 100,000 new cases of cancer diagnosed and this number is projected to grow by over 3,000 extra cases per year in 2006–2010. Although traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may extend the life of many patients, the treatments are associated with severe toxicities and are rarely curative for disseminated cancers. The idea of harnessing the immune system for the treatment of cancers represents an attractive treatment modality which should effectively complement current treatment methods. Immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, are designed to re-train the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells and tip the balance from tumour acceptance toward active tumour immunity. However, many cancer vaccine approaches have failed to live up to their potential. Cancers employ many immunosuppressive factors which contribute to nullifying anti-tumour immune responses during vaccination therapy. These immunosuppressive factors include galectin-1, regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and inhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, which are potential targets in the enhancement of immunotherapeutic strategies. This thesis aimed to investigate the role of these tumour derived immunosuppressive factors and to enhance the immune response towards an allogeneic whole cell breast cancer vaccine using a murine model of breast cancer.
Thesis (PhD Doctorate)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
School of Medical Science
Item Access Status
A commercially published journal article is included in the original on pages 193 - 208. It is not published here.
Anti breast cancer vaccines