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dc.contributor.advisorBushell, Gillian
dc.contributor.advisorSculley, Tom
dc.contributor.authorCloonan, Nicole
dc.date.accessioned2019-03-26T23:59:29Z
dc.date.available2019-03-26T23:59:29Z
dc.date.issued2006
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/367210
dc.description.abstractStress activated protein kinase (SAPK) interacting protein 1 (Sin1) is a member of a recently characterized gene family, conserved from yeast to humans. The gene copy number is strictly conserved (one Sin1 gene per genome), and the protein may be expressed ubiquitously in mammalian tissues. The Sin1 family has been implicated in several different signal transduction pathways. Originally identified as a partial cDNA and candidate Ras inhibitor, recent functional studies have revealed interactions with an interferon (IFN) receptor subunit (IFNAR2), and the SAPK JNK. Interactions have also been described between the yeast orthologues and the phosphatidylinositol kinase TOR2. Collectively, these data suggest that Sin1 has an important cellular role, and this study has investigated possible functions for this protein. As human Sin1 proteins have no paralogues within the genome, secondary structure homology was used to identify major domains within the protein. Four major domains within human Sin1 were deduced: an N-terminal domain containing a functional nuclear localization signal, a functional nuclear export signal, and a coiledcoil region; the conserved region in the middle that is likely to be a ubiquitin-like β-grasp protein binding domain; a Ras binding domain; and a pleckstrin homology-like domain that targets Sin1 to the plasma membrane and lipid rafts in vivo. Full and partial length EGFP constructs were used to examine the localization of human Sin1, and several isoforms derived from alternative splicing. All isoforms localized to the nucleus and nucleolus. Beyond this, Sin1α and Sin1ϒ had cytoplasmic staining, while Sin1 and Sin1β were also found at the plasma membrane and lipid rafts. Both the N-terminal domain and the conserved region in the middle were found to contribute to nuclear localization. Comparative genomic analysis between human, mouse, rat, dog, and chicken Sin1 genes revealed a number of conserved intronic regions, and the putative functions of these were predicted. Additionally, a putative promoter module within a CpG island and encompassing the transcription start site was predicted in all species. The human CpG island was found to have promoter activity in HEK293 cells. Using bioinformatics, genes that may be co-regulated with Sin1 were identified. These genes contained the Sin1 promoter module, and were found to co-express in large scale gene expression studies. Most of these genes were directly involved in the cellular response to pathogen infection, suggesting a conserved role for Sin1 in this pathway. Key biochemical functions of the Sin1 proteins were also identified, including the ability of Sin1 proteins to form dimers, and the ability of over-expressed Sin1 to induce apoptosis (mediated through the conserved region in the middle). Additionally, endogenous Sin1 protein levels were found to change following serum deprivation and hypoosmotic stress. Together, these studies have provided significant insight into the cellular role of Sin1, suggesting a role in inducing apoptosis as part of the IFN response to viral infection. The biological significance of the Sin1 proteins is discussed in the context of their predicted functions and the evolution of the protein family.en_US
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.publisherGriffith Universityen_US
dc.publisher.placeBrisbaneen_US
dc.rights.copyrightThe author owns the copyright in this thesis, unless stated otherwise.en_US
dc.subject.keywordsSin1en_US
dc.subject.keywordsSin1 Isoformsen_US
dc.subject.keywordsNovel Human Protein Familyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsProtein kinaseen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSAPKen_US
dc.subject.keywordsProtein 1en_US
dc.subject.keywordsMammalian tissuesen_US
dc.subject.keywordsGene familyen_US
dc.titleSin1 and Sin1 Isoforms: An Investigation into the Biological Significance of a Novel Human Protein Familyen_US
dc.typeGriffith thesisen_US
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.identifier.gurtIDgu1335150183523en_US
gro.identifier.ADTnumberadt-QGU20071102.150237en_US
gro.source.ADTshelfnoADT0en_US
gro.source.GURTshelfnoGURTen_US
gro.thesis.degreelevelThesis (PhD Doctorate)en_US
gro.thesis.degreeprogramDoctor of Philosophy (PhD)en_US
gro.departmentSchool of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciencesen_US
gro.griffith.authorCloonan, Nicole


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