Visual Observation Techniques
Most scholars agree that social marketing aims to understand individuals, groups and/or communities in order the devise strategies to change behaviour. Yet often the research underpinning this process fails to directly observe behaviour, instead relying on self-reports of behaviour. Visual observation techniques aim to do just this—observe behaviour as it happens, thereby providing a more accurate account of behaviour rather than one that is reliant on participant awareness of behaviour and behavioural influences; and also on participant ability to recall information in sufficient detail. Visual observation is used in many different ways as part of number of research traditions. This chapter focuses on techniques that provide data that is predominately quantitative in nature, via structured observation or systematic observation. In this process, observers capture details of behaviour(s) as they occur, as well as features of the surrounding physical or social environment, and interactions between individuals and these environments. This chapter profiles manual visual observation techniques from a number of disciplines, focusing on a variety of behaviours. These examples and the accompanying discussion demonstrate the value of visual observation, and indicate how visual observation may be used in social marketing formative research.
Formative Research in Social Marketing: Innovative Methods to Gain Consumer Insights
Marketing not elsewhere classified