A Need-Based Distributed Coordination Strategy for EV Storages in a Commercial Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid with an Improved Interlinking Converter Control Topology
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This paper presents a need-based distributed coordination strategy (NDCS) for multiple electric vehicle (EV) storages in an islanded commercial hybrid alternating-current (AC)/direct-current (DC) microgrid. The control capacity of the interlinking converter is enhanced by incorporating combined power-droop and voltage-droop strategies to leverage the coupling of AC and DC voltages. Therefore, the AC bus voltage can be regulated simultaneously by regulating only the DC bus voltage without affecting the power-sharing capabilities of the converter. The NDCS is proposed to coordinate the EV storages to regulate the DC bus voltage. The main objective of the NDCS is to decide whether the coordination of the available EV storages is to be done in a decentralised or a distributed manner. The mathematical model and the algorithm to deploy NDCS are developed to realise its application to a real system. The effectiveness of the control system is verified in a commercial hybrid AC/DC microgrid comprising one photovoltaic (PV) unit and four EV storages directly connected to the DC bus via DC/DC converters and four distributed-generation (DG) units connected to the AC bus using the conventional droop-control scheme. The performance of both controllers is tested under variable irradiation, commercial loading and various fault conditions. The results of the case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the overall system in terms of robustness for a variable generation-demand scenario, time delay, EV plug-and-play and fault conditions.
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
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Energy Generation, Conversion and Storage Engineering