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dc.contributor.authorvan de Merwe, Jason P
dc.contributor.authorNeale, Peta A
dc.contributor.authorMelvin, Steven D
dc.contributor.authorLeusch, Frederic DL
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-19T13:07:50Z
dc.date.available2019-06-19T13:07:50Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.issn0166-445X
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.03.033
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/379710
dc.description.abstractPesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom263
dc.relation.ispartofpageto268
dc.relation.ispartofjournalAquatic Toxicology
dc.relation.ispartofvolume199
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiological Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode059999
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode03
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode06
dc.titleIn vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscript (AM)
gro.facultyGriffith Sciences, School of Environment and Science
gro.rights.copyright© 2018 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorvan de Merwe, Jason P.
gro.griffith.authorLeusch, Frederic
gro.griffith.authorMelvin, Steve D.
gro.griffith.authorNeale, Peta A.


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