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dc.contributor.authorNeale, Petaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrack, Werneren_US
dc.contributor.authorAit-Aissa, Selimen_US
dc.contributor.authorBusch, Wibkeen_US
dc.contributor.authorHollender, Julianeen_US
dc.contributor.authorKrauss, Martinen_US
dc.contributor.authorMaillot-Marechal, Emmanuelleen_US
dc.contributor.authorMunz, Nicoleen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchlichting, Ritaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchulze, Tobiasen_US
dc.contributor.authorVogler, Bernadetteen_US
dc.contributor.authorEscher, Beateen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-19T13:08:12Z
dc.date.available2019-06-19T13:08:12Z
dc.date.issued2018en_US
dc.identifier.issn2050-7887en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/c7em00555een_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/380170
dc.description.abstractIn vitro bioassays are increasingly used for water quality monitoring. Surface water samples often need to be enriched to observe an effect and solid-phase extraction (SPE) is commonly applied for this purpose. The applied methods are typically optimised for the recovery of target chemicals and not for effect recovery for bioassays. A review of the few studies that have evaluated SPE recovery for bioassays showed a lack of experimentally determined recoveries. Therefore, we systematically measured effect recovery of a mixture of 579 organic chemicals covering a wide range of physicochemical properties that were spiked into a pristine water sample and extracted using large volume solid-phase extraction (LVSPE). Assays indicative of activation of xenobiotic metabolism, hormone receptor-mediated effects and adaptive stress responses were applied, with non-specific effects determined through cytotoxicity measurements. Overall, effect recovery was found to be similar to chemical recovery for the majority of bioassays and LVSPE blanks had no effect. Multi-layer SPE exhibited greater recovery of spiked chemicals compared to LVSPE, but the blanks triggered cytotoxicity at high enrichment. Chemical recovery data together with single chemical effect data were used to retrospectively estimate with reverse recovery modelling that there was typically less than 30% effect loss expected due to reduced SPE recovery in published surface water monitoring studies. The combination of targeted experiments and mixture modelling clearly shows the utility of SPE as a sample preparation method for surface water samples, but also emphasizes the need for adequate controls when extraction methods are adapted from chemical analysis workflows.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistryen_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom493en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto504en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue3en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalEnvironmental Science: Processes and Impactsen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume20en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences not elsewhere classifieden_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode059999en_US
dc.titleSolid-phase extraction as sample preparation of water samples for cell-based and other in vitro bioassaysen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
dc.description.versionPost-printen_US
gro.facultyGriffith Sciences, School of Environment and Scienceen_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2018 Royal Society of Chemistry. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal website for access to the definitive, published version.en_US
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