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dc.contributor.authorHe, Pei
dc.contributor.authorGordon, Catherine A
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Gail M
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yuesheng
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yuanyuan
dc.contributor.authorHu, Junjian
dc.contributor.authorGray, Darren J
dc.contributor.authorRoss, Allen G
dc.contributor.authorHarn, Donald
dc.contributor.authorMcManus, Donald P
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-06T12:31:25Z
dc.date.available2019-07-06T12:31:25Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.issn2095-5162
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s40249-018-0390-y
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/380476
dc.description.abstractBackground: Schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) can be traced back to antiquity. In the past 60 years, the Chinese government has made great efforts to control this persistent disease with elimination slated by 2020 through the implementation of a comprehensive control strategy. This strategy aims to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of infection as a pre-requisite for elimination through transmission interruption. The goal of elimination will be achievable only by the implementation of a sustainable surveillance and control system, with sensitive diagnosis a key feature so that the true disease burden is not underestimated. Currently used diagnostics lack the necessary sensitivity to accurately determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in areas with low infection intensities. It is of critical importance to find and treat people and to identify animals with low-level infections if the National Control Programme for China is to achieve schistosomiasis elimination. Methods: We evaluated a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay using 633 human stool samples collected from five villages in Hunan, Anhui, Hubei, and Jiangxi provinces, and 182 bovine (70 cattle and 112 buffalo) stool samples obtained from four villages in Hunan, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces in the PRC. All stool samples were subjected to the miracidium hatching test (MHT, a diagnostic procedure used in the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme) and the qPCR assay. Samples positive by MHT were subjected to either the Kato-Katz technique for humans, or the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation-digestion (FEA-SD) procedure for bovines, to determine infection intensities. Results: The qPCR assay exhibited a high level of sensitivity in the detection of S. japonicum infections. With both the human and bovine samples, a significantly higher prevalence was determined using the qPCR assay (11.06% humans, 24.73% bovines) than with the MHT (0.93% humans, 7.69% bovines). The animal contamination index (calculated using data obtained with the qPCR technique) for all positive bovines was 27 618 000 eggs per day, indicating a considerable amount of environmental egg contamination that would be underestimated using less sensitive diagnostic procedures. Conclusions: The qPCR assay we have evaluated will be applicable as a future field diagnostic and surveillance tool in low-transmission zones where schistosomiasis elimination is targeted and for monitoring post-intervention areas to verify that elimination has been maintained.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
dc.relation.ispartofchapter8
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto11
dc.relation.ispartofissue1
dc.relation.ispartofjournalInfectious Diseases of Poverty
dc.relation.ispartofvolume7
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPublic Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode111799
dc.titleReal-time PCR diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in low transmission areas of China
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.description.versionPublished
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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gro.griffith.authorRoss, Allen G.
gro.griffith.authorGray, Darren


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