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dc.contributor.authorAtabila, Albert
dc.contributor.authorSadler, Ross
dc.contributor.authorDung, Tri Phung
dc.contributor.authorHogarh, Jonathan N
dc.contributor.authorCarswell, Stewart
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Scott
dc.contributor.authorPatel, Renu
dc.contributor.authorConnell, Des
dc.contributor.authorChu, Cordia
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-04T12:41:25Z
dc.date.available2019-07-04T12:41:25Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.issn0944-1344
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s11356-018-2259-9
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/381729
dc.description.abstractChlorpyrifos is a neurotoxic insecticide that is widely used in the agricultural sector of Ghana. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of chlorpyrifos exposure and health risk among applicators (n = 21) on irrigated rice farms in Ghana, based on a typical application event. Pre- and post-application urine samples (24-h) were collected from the applicators and analysed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), using LC-MS/MS. The levels of chlorpyrifos-absorbed dose with the applicators were estimated from the urinary TCP levels. Prior to application, the median absorbed dose of chlorpyrifos (background exposure) with the applicators was 0.2 μg/kg/day (range 0.05 to 2 μg/kg/day). Following application, the median absorbed dose of chlorpyrifos (application exposure) increased 30-fold to 6 μg/kg/day (range 0.7 to 74 μg/kg/day). The mean elimination halflife (t1/2) of chlorpyrifos was calculated to be 50 h. Hazard quotient (HQ) values (HQ > 1) obtained with the chronic (10 μg/kg/ day) and acute (100 μg/kg/day) guideline values of the WHO suggested no risk of chronic or acute health effects, respectively, among both the median and 5% highly exposed groups. However, HQ values (HQ > 1) obtained with the chronic (0.3 μg/kg/day) and acute (5 μg/kg/day) guideline values of the USEPA suggested risk of chronic and acute health effects, respectively, among both the median and 5% highly exposed groups. The quantity of chlorpyrifos formulation applied, spraying duration, and the number of spray tanks applied significantly correlated with the absorbed dose levels of chlorpyrifos from application exposure. Therefore, these factors suggest means to reduce exposure and consequent health risk among the applicators.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherSpringer
dc.publisher.placeGermany
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom20854
dc.relation.ispartofpageto20867
dc.relation.ispartofissue21
dc.relation.ispartofjournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
dc.relation.ispartofvolume25
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiological Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode059999
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode03
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode06
dc.subject.keywordsBiomonitoring
dc.subject.keywordsBiomarker
dc.subject.keywordsChlorpyrifos
dc.subject.keywordsPesticide
dc.subject.keywordsExposure assessment
dc.subject.keywordsRisk assessment
dc.titleBiomonitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure and health risk assessment among applicators on rice farms in Ghana
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.facultyGriffith Sciences, School of Environment and Science
gro.rights.copyright© 2018 Springer-Verlag. This is an electronic version of an article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR), Vol. 25, pp. 20854–20867, 2018. Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR) is available online at: http://link.springer.com// with the open URL of your article.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorConnell, Des W.
gro.griffith.authorChu, Cordia M.
gro.griffith.authorSadler, Ross F.
gro.griffith.authorPhung, Dung T.
gro.griffith.authorAtabila, Albert


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