|dc.description.abstract||There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compounds) have in very recent decades made outstanding contributions to the development of novel therapeutics. This review brings together these significant facets of modern drug discovery by presenting the reported literature on glycans derived from marine organisms that possess antiviral activity.
The glycans have been grouped together based on the marine organism they were isolated from, namely, (1) bacteria, (2) chromists, (3) plants and (4) animals. For chromists, glycans are further subsectioned into Ochrophyta (brown algae), Miozoa (according to www.algaebase.org; also called Myzozoa according to WoRMS, www.marinespecies.org) (dinoflagellates) and Bacillariophyta (diatoms). For plants, glycans are further subsectioned into Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Tracheophyta. Glycans isolated to date are reported as alginates, chitosan, extracellular polysaccharides, fucans (e.g. fucoidans), galactans (e.g. carrageenans), glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, glycosides, glycosylated haemocyanin, laminarans, mannans, polysaccharides (not defined), rhamnans and xylomannans. Interestingly, many of the glycans displaying antiviral properties are sulfated.
Reports indicate that marine-sourced glycans have exhibited antiviral activity against African swine fever virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, Epstein-Barr virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, human papilloma virus, human rhino virus, influenza virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, murine leukaemia virus, murine sarcoma virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, Semliki Forest virus, tobacco mosaic virus, vaccinia virus, varicella zoster virus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Selected representative glycan structures are presented in Fig. 20.1.||