Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) expression on gastric epithelium: implication for a role of TREM-1 in Helicobacter pylori infection
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In Helicobacter pylori gastritis, gastric epithelium plays a central role in the innate immunity to H. pylori. However, epithelial receptors interacting with H. pylori have been poorly characterized so far. Recently a new triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) has been identified on human neutrophils and monocytes. On these cells TREM-1 triggers innate immunity by stimulating the secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a and thus amplifies bacterial-induced inflammation. In this study expression and function of TREM-1 in gastric epithelium exposed to H. pylori has been investigated. TREM-1 mRNA and protein were expressed on gastric epithelial cell lines as demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis. Gastric epithelial TREM-1 expression was up-regulated directly by H. pylori and was independent of epithelial IL-8 induced by H. pylori. Immunohistochemistry and tissue RT-PCR demonstrated significantly stronger TREM-1 expression in H. pylori gastritis compared with the non-inflamed gastric mucosa supporting in vivo that epithelial TREM-1 is up-regulated during H. pylori infection. Stimulation of gastric epithelial TREM-1 receptor resulted in IL-8 up-regulation on mRNA and protein level, as shown by real-time PCR and immunoassay. This is the first study localizing TREM-1 on gastric epithelium. Functional data suggest that TREM-1 expressed on gastric epithelium amplifies inflammation of the underlying gastric mucosa by up-regulation of IL-8.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology