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dc.contributor.authorCao, Zanxia
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Xiumei
dc.contributor.authorWang, Chunling
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Lei
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Liling
dc.contributor.authorWang, Jihua
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yaoqi
dc.description.abstractExperiments have shown that cholesterol influences the membrane permeability of small molecules, amino acids, and cell-penetrating peptides. However, their exact translocation mechanisms under the influence of cholesterol remain poorly understood. Given the practical importance of cell-penetrating peptides and the existence of varied cholesterol contents in different cell types, it is necessary to examine the permeation of amino acids in cholesterol-containing membranes at atomic level of details. Here, bias-exchange metadynamics simulations were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the membrane permeation of two amino acids Arg and Trp important for cell-penetrating peptides in the presence of different concentrations of cholesterol. We found that the free energy barrier of Arg+ (the protonated form) permeation increased linearly as the cholesterol concentration increased, whereas the barrier of Trp permeation had a rapid increase from 0 mol. % to 20 mol. % cholesterol-containing membranes and nearly unchanged from 20 mol. % to 40 mol. % cholesterol-containing membranes. Arg0 becomes slightly more stable than Arg+ at the center of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane with 40 mol. % cholesterol concentrations. As a result, Arg+ has a similar permeability as Trp at 0 mol. % and 20 mol. % cholesterol, but a significantly lower permeability than Trp at 40 mol. % cholesterol. This difference is caused by the gradual reduction of water defects for Arg+ as the cholesterol concentration increases but lack of water defects for Trp in cholesterol-containing membranes. Strong but different orientation dependence between Arg+ and Trp permeations is observed. These results provide an improved microscopic understanding of amino-acid permeation through cholesterol-containing DPPC membrane systems.
dc.relation.ispartofjournalJOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical sciences
dc.titleDifferent effects of cholesterol on membrane permeation of arginine and tryptophan revealed by bias-exchange metadynamics simulations
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorZhou, Yaoqi

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