Phosphate Removal from Wastewater Using Red Mud
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Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery. has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of Solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCI treatment shows the highest adsorpiion capacity among all the red mud samples. giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCI treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of wo acidic phosphorus species, H2PO4- and HPO42-. An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal of Hazardous Materials
Physical Chemistry of Materials
Solid State Chemistry