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dc.contributor.authorZhang, Qing
dc.contributor.authorDeng, Sinan
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Jinlin
dc.contributor.authorZhong, Xiaoxia
dc.contributor.authorHe, Jie
dc.contributor.authorChen, Xianfeng
dc.contributor.authorFeng, Bowen
dc.contributor.authorChen, Yanfei
dc.contributor.authorOstrikov, Kostya Ken
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-26T06:01:58Z
dc.date.available2019-06-26T06:01:58Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.issn1616-301X
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/adfm.201805860
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/384736
dc.description.abstractFolic acid, due to its high affinity toward folate receptors (FR), is recognized as one of the most promising cancer targeting vectors. However, the inherent defects of low water solubility (1.6 µg mL−1), high sensitivity toward photo‐bleaching, low fluorescent quantum yields (QYs, <0.5%) seriously limit its practical application. Herein, ultrastable, highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that selectively target diverse cancer cells are prepared and tested. The new GQDs present step changes compared to common folic acid through an ≈6250 times increase in water solubility (to ≈10 mg mL−1), more than 150 times in QYs (up to ≈77%), while maintaining luminescence stability up to 98% when subjected to UV, visible light, and heating over 360 min. It is shown that the suppression of nonradiative transitions by amino groups pyrolyzed from pterin plays a key role in the mechanism of high QYs and excellent stability. The functional groups that are likely responsible for the selective targeting of cancer cells with different levels of folate receptor expression on the surface are identified. Collectively with these promising properties, the new functional graphene quantum dots may open a new avenue for cancer diagnosis, drug delivery, and therapies.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherWILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
dc.relation.ispartofissue5
dc.relation.ispartofjournalADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
dc.relation.ispartofvolume29
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEngineering
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode51
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode34
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode40
dc.titleCancer-Targeting Graphene Quantum Dots: Fluorescence Quantum Yields, Stability, and Cell Selectivity
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorOstrikov, Ken


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