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dc.contributor.authorSun, X
dc.contributor.authorSo, SHW
dc.contributor.authorChiu, CD
dc.contributor.authorChan, RCK
dc.contributor.authorLeung, PWL
dc.description.abstractBackground: Worry processes are implicated in paranoia and anxiety. However, clinical studies focused on patients with co-occurring paranoia and anxiety. As both paranoia and anxiety are distributed across clinical and non-clinical groups, an investigation on worry processes among non-clinical individuals will allow us to delineate the specific worry mechanisms in paranoia and anxiety respectively. Aims: To identify clusters of non-clinical individuals who report varied levels of paranoia and anxiety, and to compare worry processes across clusters. Method: An online survey, consisting of self-report questionnaires on generalized anxiety, paranoia, and worry processes, was completed by 2796 undergraduate students. A multiple-step validity check procedure resulted in a subsample of 2291 students, upon which cluster analyses and multivariate analyses of variance were conducted. Results: Four clusters of individuals were identified: (1) high paranoia/moderate anxiety, (2) average paranoia/high anxiety, (3) average paranoia/average anxiety, and (4) low paranoia/low anxiety. A unique cluster of individuals with high paranoia but low/average level of anxiety was not found. Cluster 1 reported a significantly higher intensity of day-to-day worries, a higher level of meta-worry, and more extreme meta-cognitive beliefs about worry than other clusters. Conclusions: Individuals with high paranoia tended to report anxiety as well, but not vice versa. Our findings supported a hierarchical structure of anxiety and paranoia. All worry processes were exacerbated in individuals with paranoia and anxiety than those with anxiety alone.
dc.relation.ispartofjournalSchizophrenia Research
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiomedical and clinical sciences
dc.titleParanoia and anxiety: A cluster analysis in a non-clinical sample and the relationship with worry processes
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorChan, Raymond

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