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dc.contributor.authorRalph, Stephen J
dc.contributor.authorNozuhur, Sam
dc.contributor.authorALHulais, Reem Ali
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Enriquez, Sara
dc.contributor.authorMoreno-Sanchez, Rafael
dc.description.abstractOver the last decade, three major advances have contributed in improving the response rates against cancer including, immunotherapy; greater understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms in carcinogenesis thereby providing drug targets; and identification of reliable biomarkers for early detection to facilitate the earlier stage treatment of disease. However, no single universal cancer cure has yet been found, although combinations from the above areas have steadily improved survival outcomes. Hence, chemotherapy remains a key component in the oncologist's arsenal for cancer therapy, despite frequent development of drug resistance and more aggressive cancers with onset of advanced stage metastases. The focus here is to explore the repurposing of old drugs that cause pro‐oxidative overload to overcome onset of resistance to chemotherapy and enhance chemotherapeutic responses, particularly against metastatic cancer. Excellent examples of US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs suitable for repurposing are the potent and specific thioreductase inhibitor auranofin and the nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug, celecoxib. Recently, both drugs were shown to selectively target and kill metastatic cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs), predominantly by promoting excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Thus, targeting intracellular redox systems of advanced stage metastatic cancer cells and CSCs can promote an overload of pro‐oxidative stress to activate the intrinsic pathway for programmed cell death. It is envisaged that more clinical studies will incorporate longer term use of repurposed drugs, such as auranofin or celecoxib, to target redox systems in cancer cells as part of common practice postcancer diagnosis, providing enhanced chemotherapeutic responses and increased cancer survival.
dc.relation.ispartofjournalMedicinal Research Reviews
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMedicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiochemistry and Cell Biology
dc.subject.keywordsanticancer therapy
dc.subject.keywordscancer stem cell
dc.subject.keywordsrepurposing drugs
dc.titleRepurposing drugs as pro-oxidant redox modifiers to eliminate cancer stem cells and improve the treatment of advanced stage cancers.
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationRalph, SJ; Nozuhur, S; ALHulais, RA; Rodríguez-Enríquez, S; Moreno-Sánchez, R, Repurposing drugs as pro-oxidant redox modifiers to eliminate cancer stem cells and improve the treatment of advanced stage cancers., Medicinal Research Reviews, 2019
gro.description.notepublicThis publication has been entered into Griffith Research Online as an Advanced Online Version.
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorNozuhur, Sam
gro.griffith.authorRalph, Stephen J.
gro.griffith.authorALHulais, Reem A.

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