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dc.contributor.authorDhimal, Meghnath
dc.contributor.authorDahal, Sushma
dc.contributor.authorDhimal, Mandira Lamichhane
dc.contributor.authorMishra, Shiva Raj
dc.contributor.authorKarki, Khem B
dc.contributor.authorAryal, Krishna Kumar
dc.contributor.authorHaque, Ubydul
dc.contributor.authorKabir, Md Iqbal
dc.contributor.authorGuin, Pradeep
dc.contributor.authorButt, Azeem Mehmood
dc.contributor.authorHarapan, Harapan
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Qi-Yong
dc.contributor.authorChu, Cordia
dc.contributor.authorMontag, Doreen
dc.contributor.authorGroneberg, David Alexander
dc.contributor.authorPandey, Basu Dev
dc.contributor.authorKuch, Ulrich
dc.contributor.authorMueller, Ruth
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-11T00:48:06Z
dc.date.available2019-10-11T00:48:06Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.issn2095-5162
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/388289
dc.description.abstractAsia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom40:1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto40:7
dc.relation.ispartofissue1
dc.relation.ispartofjournalInfectious Diseases of Poverty
dc.relation.ispartofvolume7
dc.subject.keywordsAedes aegypti
dc.subject.keywordsAedes albopictus
dc.subject.keywordsChikungunya virus
dc.subject.keywordsDengue virus
dc.subject.keywordsHindu Kush Himalayas
dc.titleThreats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationDhimal, M; Dahal, S; Dhimal, ML; Mishra, SR; Karki, KB; Aryal, KK; Haque, U; Kabir, MI; Guin, P; Butt, AM; Harapan, H; Liu, QY; Chu, C; Montag, D; Groneberg, DA; Pandey, BD; Kuch, U; Müller, R, Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 2018, 7 (1), pp. 40:1-40:7
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-04-16
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2019-10-11T00:45:38Z
dc.description.versionPublished
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorChu, Cordia M.


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