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dc.contributor.authorFox, Kate L
dc.contributor.authorDowideit, Stefanie J
dc.contributor.authorErwin, Alice L
dc.contributor.authorSrikhanta, Yogitha N
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Arnold L
dc.contributor.authorJennings, Michael P
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-11T02:37:19Z
dc.date.available2018-01-11T02:37:19Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.date.modified2014-02-28T02:05:38Z
dc.identifier.issn0305-1048
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/nar/gkm571
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/38963
dc.description.abstractPhase variably expressed (randomly switching) methyltransferases associated with type III restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. We have previously shown that a phase variable methyltransferase (Mod) associated with a type III R-M system in Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd coordinates the random switching of expression of multiple genes, and constitutes a phase variable regulon-'phasevarion'. We have now identified the recognition site for the Mod methyltransferase in H. influenzae strain Rd as 5'-CGAAT-3'. This is the same recognition site as the previously described HinfIII system. A survey of 59 H. influenzae strains indicated significant sequence heterogeneity in the central, variable region of the mod gene associated with target site recognition. Intra- and inter-strain transformation experiments using Mod methylated or non-methylated plasmids, and a methylation site assay demonstrated that the sequence heterogeneity seen in the region encoding target site specificity does correlate to distinct target sites. Mutations were identified within the res gene in several strains surveyed indicating that Res is not functional. These data suggest that evolution of this type III R-M system into an epigenetic mechanism for controlling gene expression has, in some strains, resulted in loss of the DNA restriction function.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.publicationstatusYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherOxford University Press
dc.publisher.placeEngland
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationN
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom5242
dc.relation.ispartofpageto5252
dc.relation.ispartofissue15
dc.relation.ispartofjournalNucleic Acids Research
dc.relation.ispartofvolume35
dc.rights.retentionY
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiological Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchInformation and Computing Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode06
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode08
dc.titleHaemophilus influenzae phasevarions have evolved from type III DNA restriction systems into epigenetic regulators of gene expression
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2007 The Author(s) This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.date.issued2007
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorSrikhanta, Yogitha N.
gro.griffith.authorJennings, Michael P.


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