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dc.contributor.authorHunt, Andrew P
dc.contributor.authorBach, Aaron JE
dc.contributor.authorBorg, David N
dc.contributor.authorCostello, Joseph T
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Ian B
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-12T04:47:50Z
dc.date.available2019-12-12T04:47:50Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.issn1664-042X
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fphys.2017.00260
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/389737
dc.description.abstractAn accurate measure of core body temperature is critical for monitoring individuals, groups and teams undertaking physical activity in situations of high heat stress or prolonged cold exposure. This study examined the range in systematic bias of ingestible temperature sensors compared to a certified and traceable reference thermometer. A total of 119 ingestible temperature sensors were immersed in a circulated water bath at five water temperatures (TEMP A: 35.12 ± 0.60°C, TEMP B: 37.33 ± 0.56°C, TEMP C: 39.48 ± 0.73°C, TEMP D: 41.58 ± 0.97°C, and TEMP E: 43.47 ± 1.07°C) along with a certified traceable reference thermometer. Thirteen sensors (10.9%) demonstrated a systematic bias > ±0.1°C, of which 4 (3.3%) were > ± 0.5°C. Limits of agreement (95%) indicated that systematic bias would likely fall in the range of −0.14 to 0.26°C, highlighting that it is possible for temperatures measured between sensors to differ by more than 0.4°C. The proportion of sensors with systematic bias > ±0.1°C (10.9%) confirms that ingestible temperature sensors require correction to ensure their accuracy. An individualized linear correction achieved a mean systematic bias of 0.00°C, and limits of agreement (95%) to 0.00–0.00°C, with 100% of sensors achieving ±0.1°C accuracy. Alternatively, a generalized linear function (Corrected Temperature (°C) = 1.00375 × Sensor Temperature (°C) − 0.205549), produced as the average slope and intercept of a sub-set of 51 sensors and excluding sensors with accuracy outside ±0.5°C, reduced the systematic bias to < ±0.1°C in 98.4% of the remaining sensors (n = 64). In conclusion, these data show that using an uncalibrated ingestible temperature sensor may provide inaccurate data that still appears to be statistically, physiologically, and clinically meaningful. Correction of sensor temperature to a reference thermometer by linear function eliminates this systematic bias (individualized functions) or ensures systematic bias is within ±0.1°C in 98% of the sensors (generalized function).
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherFrontiers Research Foundation
dc.publisher.placeSwitzerland
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom260: 1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto260: 7
dc.relation.ispartofjournalFrontiers in Physiology
dc.relation.ispartofvolume8
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMedical Physiology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysiology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPsychology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1116
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0606
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1701
dc.titleThe Systematic Bias of Ingestible Core Temperature Sensors Requires a Correction by Linear Regression
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationHunt, AP; Bach, AJE; Borg, DN; Costello, JT; Stewart, IB, The Systematic Bias of Ingestible Core Temperature Sensors Requires a Correction by Linear Regression, Frontiers in Physiology, 2017, 8, pp. 260: 1-260: 7
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2019-12-12T01:05:48Z
dc.description.versionPublished
gro.rights.copyright© 2017 Hunt, Bach, Borg, Costello and Stewart. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorBorg, David
gro.griffith.authorBach, Aaron J.


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