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dc.contributor.authorMallard, Brody
dc.contributor.authorLeach, David N
dc.contributor.authorWohlmuth, Hans
dc.contributor.authorTiralongo, Joe
dc.date.accessioned2020-01-30T03:14:41Z
dc.date.available2020-01-30T03:14:41Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0224740
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/390974
dc.description.abstractA key characteristic of mushroom polysaccharides that elicit an immunomodulatory response is that they are rich in β-glucans and low in α-glucans. In this study we analysed nine commercially available preparations from three mushroom species, Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa), for β- and α-glucan content. Based on β- and α-glucan content we selected three extracts to combine into a formula and evaluated the ability of the individual extracts and formula to impact on the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in human macrophages with and without LPS stimulation. The majority of mushroom extracts and the formula were found to be highly potent immuno-stimulators possessing EC50 values lower than 100 μg/mL. Interestingly the mushroom formula had lower EC50 values in TNF-α expression from LPS stimulated macrophages compared to the individual extracts, suggesting a potential synergistic effect of the mushroom formula. A response additivity graph and curve-shift analysis illustrated that indeed the mushroom formula exhibited an immuno-stimulatory synergistic effect on the expression of the majority of cytokines evaluated in both LPS stimulated and non-stimulated human macrophages, with IL-10 having an antagonistic response. This study represents the first report of a synergistic immuno-modulatory response in human macrophages elicited from a mushroom formula rationally derived from β- and α-glucan content.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.ispartofissue11
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPLoS One
dc.relation.ispartofvolume14
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiomedical and clinical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode32
dc.titleSynergistic immuno-modulatory activity in human macrophages of a medicinal mushroom formulation consisting of Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationMallard, B; Leach, DN; Wohlmuth, H; Tiralongo, J, Synergistic immuno-modulatory activity in human macrophages of a medicinal mushroom formulation consisting of Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake, PLoS One, 2019, 14 (11)
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-10-21
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2020-01-30T03:11:57Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2019 Mallard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorTiralongo, Joe
gro.griffith.authorMallard, Brody W.


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