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dc.contributor.authorEybpoosh, Sana
dc.contributor.authorBahrampour, Abbas
dc.contributor.authorKaramouzian, Mohammad
dc.contributor.authorAzadmanesh, Kayhan
dc.contributor.authorJahanbakhsh, Fatemeh
dc.contributor.authorMostafavi, Ehsan
dc.contributor.authorZolala, Farzaneh
dc.contributor.authorHaghdoost, Ali Akbar
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-17T22:34:19Z
dc.date.available2020-02-17T22:34:19Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0156499
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/391622
dc.description.abstractHIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug networks and mass migration of Afghan refugees and labours to Iran, which calls for extensive preventive efforts.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science
dc.relation.ispartofissue6
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPLoS One
dc.relation.ispartofvolume11
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology
dc.subject.keywordsMultidisciplinary Sciences
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology - Other Topics
dc.subject.keywordsINJECTING DRUG-USERS
dc.subject.keywordsNORTH-AFRICA
dc.titleSpatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationEybpoosh, S; Bahrampour, A; Karamouzian, M; Azadmanesh, K; Jahanbakhsh, F; Mostafavi, E; Zolala, F; Haghdoost, AA, Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran, PLoS One, 2016, 11 (6)
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-05-16
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2020-02-17T22:32:12Z
dc.description.versionPublished
gro.rights.copyright© 2016 Eybpoosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorBahrampour, Abbas


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