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dc.contributor.authorTao, Yan
dc.contributor.authorDong, Fengshou
dc.contributor.authorXu, Jun
dc.contributor.authorPhung, Dung
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Qianyu
dc.contributor.authorLi, Runan
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Xingang
dc.contributor.authorWu, Xiaohu
dc.contributor.authorHe, Min
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Yongquan
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-31T04:46:13Z
dc.date.available2020-03-31T04:46:13Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.issn0160-4120
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envint.2019.105079
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/392810
dc.description.abstractImidacloprid (IMI) is a typical neonicotinoid with the largest usage in agricultural orchards in China. The long-term repeated use and the lack of proper protective measures may result in rural farmers and people living near orchards to be inevitably exposed to IMI. Excessive exposure may cause potential adverse effects on human health. To explore the characteristics of human exposure to IMI in urine, different groups of people, including pesticide applicators and their family members, and kindergarten children near IMI-applied orchards were investigated. The IMI and metabolite, 6-chloronicotinic acid (6-CNA), concentrations in urine were creatinine-adjusted to compensate for a possible dilution effect. Target analytes were detected in 100% of 1926 urine samples. The results showed that the IMI concentration in the 1-d urine from the rural residents significantly increased after a spraying event (p < 0.05) and reached the highest concentration (Geomean: 16.42 μg/g creatinine for IMI; 7.33 μg/g creatinine for 6-CNA) in the 2-d urine samples. The pesticide applicators of different genders had almost the same exposure environment (IMI Geomean of 13.25 μg/g creatinine for males and 14.71 μg/g creatinine for females) (p > 0.05). Females had higher exposure concentrations than that of males. People from different villages demonstrated diverse exposure levels with Geomean differences of 1.13–3.28 fold. For 3–6 years-old children, urinary concentrations from the rural group (Geomean: 3.73 μg/g creatinine for IMI; 3.95 μg/g creatinine for 6-CNA) were significantly higher than that of the urban group (Geomean: 1.13 μg/g creatinine for IMI; 0.88 μg/g creatinine for 6-CNA) (p = 0.00001), and the younger children tended to have higher exposure risk. Our findings showed that people in the Henan orchard areas were likely exposed to IMI to varying degrees. Further research on the health risk evaluation of IMI and controlling the exposure risks is needed.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.ispartofjournalEnvironment International
dc.relation.ispartofvolume132
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology
dc.subject.keywordsLife Sciences & Biomedicine
dc.subject.keywordsEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
dc.subject.keywordsNeonicotinoids
dc.titleCharacteristics of neonicotinoid imidacloprid in urine following exposure of humans to orchards in China
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTao, Y; Dong, F; Xu, J; Dung, P; Liu, Q; Li, R; Liu, X; Wu, X; He, M; Zheng, Y, Characteristics of neonicotinoid imidacloprid in urine following exposure of humans to orchards in China, Environment International, 2019, 132
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-07-31
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.date.updated2020-03-31T04:36:33Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2019. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorPhung, Dung T.


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