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dc.contributor.authorWang, Wenqing
dc.contributor.authorFu, Haifeng
dc.contributor.authorLee, Shing Yip
dc.contributor.authorFan, Hangqing
dc.contributor.authorWang, Mao
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-20T23:41:06Z
dc.date.available2020-05-20T23:41:06Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn1664-8021
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/f11010055
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/394081
dc.description.abstractChina has lost about 50% of its mangrove forests from 1950 to 2001. Since 2001, mangrove forest area has increased by 1.8% per year due to strict protection of the remaining mangrove forests and large-scale restoration. By 2019, 67% of the mangrove forests in China had been enclosed within protected areas (PAs). In terms of the proportion of PAs of mangrove forests, China has achieved the conservation target of “Nature Needs Half”. The ongoing degradation of mangrove forests was assessed at the species, population, community and ecosystem levels. The results show that despite the strict protection, the remaining mangrove forests are suffering extensive degradation due to widespread anthropogenic disturbance. Of the 26 mangrove species, 50% are threatened with extinction, a proportion higher than the average for all higher plants in China (10.8%). Local extinction of some common species like Bruguiera gymnorhiza is widespread. About 53% of the existing mangrove areas were dominated by low-intertidal pioneer species. Consequently, the carbon stock in vegetation has decreased by 53.1%, from 21.8 Tg C in the 1950s to 10.2 Tg C in 2019. Meanwhile, there is an estimated 10.8% concomitant decrease in the carbon sequestration rate. The root cause for this degradation in China is seawall construction because most mangroves are outside seawalls in China. Without fundamental changes in protection and restoration strategies, mangrove forests in China will continue to degrade in spite of strict protection and large-scale restoration. Future mangrove conservation effort should aim to preserve the diversity of both the biota and the ecological processes sustaining the mangrove ecosystem. A few suggestions to raise the effectiveness of mangrove conservation actions were provided.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom55:1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto55:16
dc.relation.ispartofissue1
dc.relation.ispartofjournalForests
dc.relation.ispartofvolume11
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchGenetics
dc.subject.fieldofresearchClinical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchLaw
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0604
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1103
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1801
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology
dc.subject.keywordsLife Sciences & Biomedicine
dc.subject.keywordsForestry
dc.subject.keywordsmangrove forest
dc.subject.keywordsconservation
dc.titleCan Strict Protection Stop the Decline of Mangrove Ecosystems in China? From Rapid Destruction to Rampant Degradation
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationWang, W; Fu, H; Lee, SY; Fan, H; Wang, M, Can Strict Protection Stop the Decline of Mangrove Ecosystems in China? From Rapid Destruction to Rampant Degradation, Forests, 2020, 11 (1), pp. 55:1-55:16
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-01-17
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2020-05-20T23:38:22Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorLee, Joe Y.


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