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dc.contributor.authorNoma, Y.
dc.contributor.authorIshikawa, Y.
dc.contributor.authorFalandysz, J.
dc.contributor.authorJecek, L.
dc.contributor.authorGulkowska, A.
dc.contributor.authorMiyaji, K.
dc.contributor.authorSakai, S.
dc.description.abstract202 congeners of chlorobiphenyl (CB) with 109 single-resolved compounds and 93 co-eluting, which represented from mono- to deca-CB were quantified as by-side impurities in all seven and of various type the technical chloronaphthalene (CN) formulations of the Halowax series. IUPAC No. 104, 145, 159, 169, 184, 186, and 188 were undetected (<0.05-<0.7ng/g). The total CBs content of the Halowax formulations ranged between 220 and 640,000ng/g, and lower chlorinated Halowaxes 1031 (27% Cl) and 1000 (35% Cl) were two to three orders of magnitude more contaminated with CBs than higher chlorinated Halowax 1001, 1099, 1013, 1014, and 1051 (49-70% Cl). The profile of CB homologue groups of the Halowaxes changed and followed somehow a degree of chlorination of the parent CN mixture. For Halowax 1031 and 1000, a decreasing trend in proportion from mono- to deca-CB was evident, while for Halowax 1001, 1099, 1013, 1014, and 1051 the relative proportions between the CB homologue groups varied somehow. Evidently content of lower chlorinated mono- and di-CBs highly decreased and steadily increased tri- to octa-CBs and they become dominating homologues in Halowax formulations in parallel with an increase of the content of higher molecular weight CN constituents, respectively. Among planar non- and mono-ortho CBs, total concentrations in Halowax formulations were detected in the range of 2.0-2600ng/g, and only 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB (no. 169) was undetected (<0.05ng/g). Detection of by-side CBs in technical Halowaxes demonstrate clearly that those formulations apart from a massive introduction of dioxin-like CNs become in the past also an early source of environmental pollution with CBs, which proceeded for around 20-30 years use of original CB formulations.
dc.publisherTaylor & Francis
dc.relation.ispartofjournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A
dc.subject.fieldofresearchInstrumental Methods (excl. Immunological and Bioassay Methods)
dc.titleBy-Side Impurities in Chloronaphthalene Mixtures of the Halowax Series: All 209 Chlorobiphenyls
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorIshikawa, Yukari

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