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dc.contributor.authorDevaprakash, D
dc.contributor.authorObst, SJ
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, DG
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, RS
dc.contributor.authorKennedy, B
dc.contributor.authorBall, I
dc.contributor.authorAdams, KL
dc.contributor.authorCollings, TJ
dc.contributor.authorDavico, G
dc.contributor.authorHunter, A
dc.contributor.authorVlahovich, N
dc.contributor.authorPease, DL
dc.contributor.authorPizzolato, C
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-24T22:58:49Z
dc.date.available2020-09-24T22:58:49Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn1664-042X
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fphys.2020.00965
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/397906
dc.description.abstract© Copyright © 2020 Devaprakash, Obst, Lloyd, Barrett, Kennedy, Ball, Adams, Collings, Davico, Hunter, Vlahovich, Pease and Pizzolato. Tendon geometry and tissue properties are important determinants of tendon function and injury risk and are altered in response to ageing, disease, and physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to compare free Achilles tendon geometry and mechanical properties between trained elite/sub-elite middle-distance runners and a healthy control group. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure free Achilles tendon volume, length, average cross-sectional area (CSA), regional CSA, moment arm, and T2* relaxation time at rest, while freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) was used to quantify free Achilles tendon mechanical stiffness, Young’s modulus, and length normalised mechanical stiffness. The free Achilles tendon in trained runners was significantly shorter and the average and regional CSA (distal end) were significantly larger compared to the control group. Mechanical stiffness of the free Achilles tendon was also significantly higher in trained runners compared to controls, which was explained by the group differences in tendon CSA and length. T2* relaxation time was significantly longer in trained middle-distance runners when compared to healthy controls. There was no relationship between T2* relaxation time and Young’s modulus. The longer T2* relaxation time in trained runners may be indicative of accumulated damage, disorganised collagen, and increased water content in the free Achilles tendon. A short free Achilles tendon with large CSA and higher mechanical stiffness may enable trained runners to rapidly transfer high muscle forces and possibly reduce the risk of tendon damage from mechanical fatigue.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SA
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom965
dc.relation.ispartofjournalFrontiers in Physiology
dc.relation.ispartofvolume11
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysiology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMedical Physiology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPsychology
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0606
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1116
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1701
dc.titleThe Free Achilles Tendon Is Shorter, Stiffer, Has Larger Cross-Sectional Area and Longer T2* Relaxation Time in Trained Middle-Distance Runners Compared to Healthy Controls
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationDevaprakash, D; Obst, SJ; Lloyd, DG; Barrett, RS; Kennedy, B; Ball, I; Adams, KL; Collings, TJ; Davico, G; Hunter, A; Vlahovich, N; Pease, DL; Pizzolato, C, The Free Achilles Tendon Is Shorter, Stiffer, Has Larger Cross-Sectional Area and Longer T2* Relaxation Time in Trained Middle-Distance Runners Compared to Healthy Controls, Frontiers in Physiology, 2020, 11, pp. 965
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2020-09-24T22:26:40Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2020 Devaprakash, Obst, Lloyd, Barrett, Kennedy, Ball, Adams, Collings, Davico, Hunter, Vlahovich, Pease and Pizzolato. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorLloyd, David
gro.griffith.authorPizzolato, Claudio
gro.griffith.authorKennedy, Benjamin
gro.griffith.authorDevaprakash, Daniel
gro.griffith.authorBarrett, Rod
gro.griffith.authorCollings, Tyler
gro.griffith.authorObst, Steven J.


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