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dc.contributor.authorArguello-Garcia, Raul
dc.contributor.authorLeitsch, David
dc.contributor.authorSkinner-Adams, Tina
dc.contributor.authorGuadalupe Ortega-Pierres, M
dc.contributor.editorOrtegaPierres, MG
dc.description.abstractThe use of chemotherapeutic drugs is the main resource against clinical giardiasis due to the lack of approved vaccines. Resistance of G. duodenalis to the most used drugs to treat giardiasis, metronidazole and albendazole, is a clinical issue of growing concern and yet unknown impact, respectively. In the search of new drugs, the completion of the Giardia genome project and the use of biochemical, molecular and bioinformatics tools allowed the identification of ligands/inhibitors for about one tenth of ≈ 150 potential drug targets in this parasite. Further, the synthesis of second generation nitroimidazoles and benzimidazoles along with high-throughput technologies have allowed not only to define overall mechanisms of resistance to metronidazole but to screen libraries of repurposed drugs and new pharmacophores, thereby increasing the known arsenal of anti-giardial compounds to some hundreds, with most demonstrating activity against metronidazole or albendazole-resistant Giardia. In particular, cysteine-modifying agents which include omeprazole, disulfiram, allicin and auranofin outstand due to their pleiotropic activity based on the extensive repertoire of thiol-containing proteins and the microaerophilic metabolism of this parasite. Other promising agents derived from higher organisms including phytochemicals, lactoferrin and propolis as well as probiotic bacteria/fungi have also demonstrated significant potential for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in giardiasis. In this context the present chapter offers a comprehensive review of the current knowledge, including commonly prescribed drugs, causes of therapeutic failures, drug resistance mechanisms, strategies for the discovery of new agents and alternative drug therapies.
dc.publisherElsevier, Academic Press Inc
dc.relation.ispartofbooktitleGiardia and Giardiasis, Part B
dc.subject.fieldofresearchVeterinary sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMedical microbiology
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology
dc.subject.keywordsLife Sciences & Biomedicine
dc.subject.keywordsInfectious Diseases
dc.titleDrug resistance in Giardia: Mechanisms and alternative treatments for Giardiasis
dc.typeBook chapter
dc.type.descriptionB1 - Chapters
dcterms.bibliographicCitationArguello-Garcia, R; Leitsch, D; Skinner-Adams, T; Guadalupe Ortega-Pierres, M, Drug resistance in Giardia: Mechanisms and alternative treatments for Giardiasis, Giardia and Giardiasis, Part B, 2020, 107, pp. 201-282
gro.rights.copyrightSelf-archiving is not yet supported by this publisher. Please refer to the publisher's website or contact the author(s) for more information.
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorSkinner-Adams, Tina

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