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dc.contributor.authorTong, Shuangmei
dc.contributor.authorLi, Hairong
dc.contributor.authorWang, Li
dc.contributor.authorTudi, Muyesaier
dc.contributor.authorYang, Linsheng
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-05T00:47:21Z
dc.date.available2021-02-05T00:47:21Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn1661-7827en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph17093099en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/401716
dc.description.abstractThis study provides an overview of the studies of heavy metal pollution regarding As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in the urban soils throughout 71 cities of China, based on data from online literature, during the period 2003–2019. The concentrations, spatial distributions, contamination degrees and health risks of heavy metals in the urban soils were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the mean values of eight heavy metals all exceeded the soil background values in China, and the kriging interpolation method showed that the hot-spot cities with heavy metal contamination in urban soils were mainly concentrated in the southwest, southcentral, southeast coast, northcentral and northwest regions of China. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) indicated that Hg and Cd were at moderate contamination levels and that the levels of the other six metals did not appear contamination. The pollution index (PI) showed that Cd and Hg reached high contamination levels, and the other metals reached moderate contamination levels. The integrated pollution index (IPI) and potential ecological risk index (PRI) indicated that the integral urban soils in the study areas ranked high contamination levels and moderate ecological risk degree, respectively, and Cd and Hg should be labeled as priority metals for control in the urban soils around China. The human health risk assessments for the heavy metals indicated that ingestion was the dominant exposure pathway for having adverse effects on human health. The mean Hazard index (HI) values of eight heavy metals all showed that adverse effects on human health were unlikely, and the mean carcinogenic (CR) values of As, Cr and Ni for children and adults all suggested an acceptable carcinogenic risk to human beings. In addition, children exposed to these heavy metals faced more serious non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health threats compared to adults. The results could provide valuable information for demanding the better control of heavy metal pollution and mitigation of the adverse effects on residents by environmental regulators in national urban regions.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom3099en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue9en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume17en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPublic Health and Health Servicesen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Science and Managementen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode1117en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0502en_US
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technologyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsLife Sciences & Biomedicineen_US
dc.subject.keywordsPublic, Environmental & Occupational Healthen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEcologyen_US
dc.titleConcentration, Spatial Distribution, Contamination Degree and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils across China between 2003 and 2019-A Systematic Reviewen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTong, S; Li, H; Wang, L; Tudi, M; Yang, L, Concentration, Spatial Distribution, Contamination Degree and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils across China between 2003 and 2019-A Systematic Review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17 (9), pp. 3099en_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-04-16
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.date.updated2021-02-05T00:31:31Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)en_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
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gro.griffith.authorTUDI, Muyesaier


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