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dc.contributor.authorProbst, Josefine
dc.contributor.authorOutram, John G
dc.contributor.authorCouperthwaite, Sara J
dc.contributor.authorMillar, Graeme J
dc.contributor.authorKaparaju, Prasad
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-08T22:41:11Z
dc.date.available2021-02-08T22:41:11Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.issn1387-1811
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.micromeso.2021.110918
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/401852
dc.description.abstractAlthough zeolite N (K12Al10Si10O40Cl2.8H2O) is used commercially for the removal and recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen from wastewater, it has received limited attention in academic literature. The hypothesis was that if an improved understanding of zeolite N synthesis and resultant physical parameters and performance can be acquired, then the application of this material may be accelerated. This study successfully addressed existing research challenges including: maximizing the cation exchange capacity (CEC); selection of preferred synthesis conditions; control of the size, shape, and dispersion of zeolite N crystals; and improvement of ion exchange properties. Zeolite N was hydrothermally synthesised from kaolin clay added to solutions of potassium hydroxide and potassium chloride in a “one pot” process. CEC values increased to 563 meq/100 g (c.f. 528 meq/100 g in previous literature). Reaction between 120 and 140 °C for 2–4 h under static conditions was preferred as higher temperatures (180 °C) produced kalsilite. The KOH molarity (1.2–4.3 M) controlled the average zeolite crystal size, dispersion, and crystal shape; with highest molarity values optimal. Whereas, added KCl acted as a template which promoted zeolite N formation. Removal of KCl resulted in creation of zeolite F (K13(OH)3Al10Si10O40.13H2O) which also belonged to the EDI structural type. Ammonium ion exchange from aqueous solution was improved when diffusion restrictions were eased; as evidenced by using smaller zeolite crystals which were highly dispersed and not agglomerated. Not only was a greater cation capacity recorded but also the time to reach equilibrium was increased.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageen
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom110918
dc.relation.ispartofjournalMicroporous and Mesoporous Materials
dc.subject.fieldofresearchChemical Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEngineering
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode03
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode09
dc.titleSustainable ammonium recovery from wastewater: Improved synthesis and performance of zeolite N made from kaolin
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationProbst, J; Outram, JG; Couperthwaite, SJ; Millar, GJ; Kaparaju, P, Sustainable ammonium recovery from wastewater: Improved synthesis and performance of zeolite N made from kaolin, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2021, pp. 11091
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.date.updated2021-02-08T22:22:44Z
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscript (AM)
gro.description.notepublicThis publication has been entered as an advanced online version in Griffith Research Online.
gro.rights.copyright© 2021 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorKaparaju, Prasad


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