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dc.contributor.authorGrogan, LF
dc.contributor.authorHumphries, JE
dc.contributor.authorRobert, J
dc.contributor.authorLanctôt, CM
dc.contributor.authorNock, CJ
dc.contributor.authorNewell, DA
dc.contributor.authorMcCallum, HI
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-12T02:08:46Z
dc.date.available2021-02-12T02:08:46Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn2309-608X
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/jof6040234
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/402049
dc.description.abstractAmphibians are currently the most threatened vertebrate class, with the disease chytridiomycosis being a major contributor to their global declines. Chytridiomycosis is a frequently fatal skin disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). The severity and extent of the impact of the infection caused by these pathogens across modern Amphibia are unprecedented in the history of vertebrate infectious diseases. The immune system of amphibians is thought to be largely similar to that of other jawed vertebrates, such as mammals. However, amphibian hosts are both ectothermic and water-dependent, which are characteristics favouring fungal proliferation. Although amphibians possess robust constitutive host defences, Bd/Bsal replicate within host cells once these defences have been breached. Intracellular fungal localisation may contribute to evasion of the induced innate immune response. Increasing evidence suggests that once the innate defences are surpassed, fungal virulence factors suppress the targeted adaptive immune responses whilst promoting an ineffectual inflammatory cascade, resulting in immunopathology and systemic metabolic disruption. Thus, although infections are contained within the integument, crucial homeostatic processes become compromised, leading to mortality. In this paper, we present an integrated synthesis of amphibian post-metamorphic immunological responses and the corresponding outcomes of infection with Bd, focusing on recent developments within the field and highlighting future directions.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.sponsorshipRoyal Zoological Society of New South Wales (RZS NSW)
dc.description.sponsorshipWildlife Disease Association
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom1
dc.relation.ispartofpageto24
dc.relation.ispartofissue4
dc.relation.ispartofjournalJournal of Fungi
dc.relation.ispartofvolume6
dc.relation.urihttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/ARC/DP180101415
dc.relation.grantIDDP180101415
dc.relation.fundersARC
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode05
dc.subject.keywordsBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis
dc.subject.keywordsBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans
dc.subject.keywordsadaptive
dc.subject.keywordsamphibian
dc.subject.keywordschytridiomycosis
dc.titleImmunological aspects of chytridiomycosis
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationGrogan, LF; Humphries, JE; Robert, J; Lanctôt, CM; Nock, CJ; Newell, DA; McCallum, HI, Immunological aspects of chytridiomycosis, Journal of Fungi, 2020, 6 (4), pp. 1-24
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-10-15
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2021-02-12T02:01:41Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2020 The Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorMcCallum, Hamish
gro.griffith.authorGrogan, Laura F.
gro.griffith.authorLanctot, Chantal
gro.griffith.authorHumphries, Josie E.


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