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dc.contributor.authorMohammadi, A
dc.contributor.authorVenkatesh, G
dc.contributor.authorSandberg, M
dc.contributor.authorEskandari, S
dc.contributor.authorJoseph, S
dc.contributor.authorGranström, K
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-24T01:44:11Z
dc.date.available2021-02-24T01:44:11Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn2071-1050en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/su12219026en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/402544
dc.description.abstractHydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been seen as a potentially beneficial process for converting wet biomass into value-added products. It is, however, necessary to overcome the challenges associated with handling the powdered form of hydrochar—a solid product of the HTC process—by controlling the formation of dust and facilitating smoother transportation and distribution in a potentially wide marketplace. In this paper, the authors investigate the environmental consequences of different alternatives for using hydrochar pellets produced from mixed sludges from pulp and paper mills in Sweden, using the environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA). Two scenarios for possible end-uses of hydrochar in combined heat and power (CHP) plants as a source of energy (heat and electricity) were assessed. In these scenarios, hydrochar pellets were assumed to be combusted in CHP plants, thereby avoiding the use of combustible solid wastes (Scenario A) and coal (Scenario B), respectively, to recover energy in the form of electricity and heat. The environmental damages to Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, Climate Change, and Resources are evaluated based on 1 tonne of dry sludge as the functional unit. The results from this analysis illustrate that Scenario B, in which hydrochar replaces coal, offers the greatest reduction in all the environmental damage characterizations, except the Resources category. The displacement of energy-based coal due to hydrochar combustion contributed most significantly to the environmental damages wrought by the system—ranging from 52% in Resources to 93% in Ecosystem Quality. Overall, the results highlight that the application of hydrochar pellets for energy recovery to offset waste-and coal-based energy sources has great environmental benefits. The favorability of sludge hydrochar over solid wastes as fuel for CHP plants may be counter-intuitive at first, since HTC is an energy-intensive process, but when accounting for the necessity of dependence on imports of wastes for instance, the hydrochar pellet may well emerge as a good option for CHPs in Sweden.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom9026en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue21en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalSustainabilityen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume12en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBuilt Environment and Designen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode12en_US
dc.titleA comprehensive environmental life cycle assessment of the use of hydrochar pellets in combined heat and power plantsen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationMohammadi, A; Venkatesh, G; Sandberg, M; Eskandari, S; Joseph, S; Granström, K, A comprehensive environmental life cycle assessment of the use of hydrochar pellets in combined heat and power plants, Sustainability, 2020, 12 (21), pp. 9026en_US
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.date.updated2021-02-24T01:42:28Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)en_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorJoseph, Stephen


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