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dc.contributor.authorNdukwe, HC
dc.contributor.authorShaul, D
dc.contributor.authorShin, J
dc.contributor.authorPang, CD
dc.contributor.authorSwee, CY
dc.contributor.authorHong, BT
dc.contributor.authorDummer, JF
dc.contributor.authorFitzgerald, C
dc.contributor.authorWilby, KJ
dc.contributor.authorMarra, CA
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: It is unknown when and how often competency assessments should occur in pharmacy education. Using inhaler technique as an example competency, the study objectives were to measure the proportion of near-graduation students demonstrating correct technique approximately one year after initial training and to measure reliability between assessors. Methods: A sample of 45 near-graduation pharmacy students with prior education on correct inhaler technique participated in this direct observation study at the University of Otago. Five trained assessors simultaneously rated each participant's inhaler technique demonstration using a checklist. Results: Of 37 participants demonstrating a pressurized metered dose inhaler, 21.62% demonstrated correct technique. No participants among eight volunteers demonstrated proper use of a dry powder inhaler. On average, two steps were performed correctly for each inhaler type. Steps with the highest error rate were “hold the inhaler upright and shake well,” “breath out gently, away from the inhaler,” and “keep breathing in slowly and deeply”. The intraclass correlation coefficient for any inhaler type was excellent (0.91), suggesting assessors had strong reliability. Conclusions: Students did not retain ability to correctly demonstrate inhaler technique one year after initial instruction. This finding supports the notion that demonstrable tasks may need to be frequently assessed to ensure the task is mastered and becomes a routine part of a student's practice. It also suggests that assessment of milestones and/or entrustable professional activities may need to occur at different time points throughout a program, rather than allowing for “signing off” prematurely.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofjournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
dc.subject.fieldofresearchCurriculum and pedagogy
dc.subject.keywordsDry powder inhaler
dc.subject.keywordsEntrustable professional activity
dc.subject.keywordsInhaler technique demonstration
dc.subject.keywordsMetered dose inhaler
dc.subject.keywordsPharmacy education
dc.titleAssessment of inhaler technique among fourth-year pharmacy students: Implications for the use of entrustable professional activities
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationNdukwe, HC; Shaul, D; Shin, J; Pang, CD; Swee, CY; Hong, BT; Dummer, JF; Fitzgerald, C; Wilby, KJ; Marra, CA, Assessment of inhaler technique among fourth-year pharmacy students: Implications for the use of entrustable professional activities, Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 2020, 12 (3), pp. 281-286
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorNdukwe, Henry C.

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